What Vitamin Is Associated With The 4 D's?

Pellagra and the Four D’s. Pellagra is the result of severe niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency. The classic symptoms of pellagra are dermatitis (rough, scaly skin), diarrhea, dementia and death. Health professionals sometimes call this constellation of symptoms “the four D’s.”

What are the 4 d's of pellagra?

Pellagra defines systemic disease as resulting from a marked cellular deficiency of niacin. It is characterized by 4D’s“: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. Diagnosis of pellagra is difficult in the absence of the skin lesions, and is often facilitated by the presence of characteristic ones.

Where is pellagra most commonly found?

Pellagra is common in poor parts of the world, such as Africa and India, where corn (or maize) is a staple food. This is because corn is a poor source of tryptophan and niacin. In the United States, pellagra was prevalent in the early 1900’s in the South where corn played a large role in the diet.

Is niacin good for hair growth?

Required for every component of your body, niacin — more commonly known as Vitamin B3 — supports healthier, more luscious hair. Since it can also improve your general health if your intake of this key vitamin is low, it’s critical that you’re aware of its role in terms of your well-being.

Can pellagra be cured?

Pellagra can be effectively cured with intravenous or oral niacin or nicotinamide.

How do you prevent pellagra?

To prevent and/or treat pellagra, prescribe a protein-rich diet with adequate calories. The addition of meats, milk, peanuts, leafy green vegetables, whole or enriched grains, and brewer’s dry yeast can enhance niacin intake.

What foods are high in niacin?

Many foods are rich in niacin, especially animal products like meat, fish and poultry. Vegetarian sources include avocado, peanuts, whole grains, mushrooms, green peas and potatoes.

Who is at risk for pellagra?

Risk factors include poverty, staple diet that is poor in niacin (maize, Indian millet, or jowar), eating disorders, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), alcohol abuse, medication (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, carbamazepine, carbidopa, chloramphenicol, phenytoin, phenobarbital), chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, 6-

What is vitamin b2?

Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, is one of eight B vitamins that are essential for human health. It can be found in grains, plants, and dairy products. It is crucial for breaking down food components, absorbing other nutrients, and maintaining tissues. Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin, so it dissolves in water.

Is pellagra contagious?

Symptoms of pellagra can include lack of energy, outbreaks of red splotches on the skin, diarrhea, and—in extreme cases—depression, dementia, and even death. Pellagra is not contagious, and the condition can be reversed.

Who is most at risk for niacin deficiency?

children 14-18 years: 16 NE for boys; 14 NE for girls. adults 19 years and older: 16 NE for men; 14 NE for women. pregnant women: 18 NE. breast-feeding women: 17 NE.

What happens in beri beri?

Beriberi is a disease caused by a vitamin B-1 deficiency, also known as thiamine deficiency. Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. In extreme cases, wet beriberi can cause heart failure. Dry beriberi damages the nerves and can lead to decreased muscle strength and eventually, muscle paralysis.

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