What Is Heterophile Agglutination Test?

The test relies on the agglutination of horse erythrocytes by heterophile antibodies in patient serum. Heterophile means it reacts with proteins across species lines. Heterophile also can mean that it is an antibody that reacts with antigens other than the antigen that stimulated it (an antibody that crossreacts).

What does heterophile antibody mean?

Heterophile antibodies are antibodies induced by external antigens (heterophile antigens). Some cross-react with self-antigens. For example, in rheumatic fever, antibodies against group A streptococcal cell walls can also react with (and thus damage) human heart tissues. These are considered heterophile antibodies.

What is the kissing virus?

Mono, or infectious mononucleosis, refers to a group of symptoms usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The virus is spread through saliva, which is why some people refer to it as “the kissing disease.”

What does a positive heterophile antibody test mean?

The heterophile antibody test (eg, the Monospot test) results may be negative early in the course of EBV infectious mononucleosis. These causes of false-positive Monospot test results include toxoplasmosis, rubella, lymphoma, and certain malignancies, particularly leukemias and/or lymphomas.

What causes immunoassay interference?

Interference is caused by interaction with one or more steps in the immunoassay procedure and the analyte concentration or the antibody binding is influenced (Davies, 2005). Unsuspected binding protein(s) in the individual can interfere with the reaction between analyte and assay antibodies.

What is Epstein Barr disease?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the herpes virus family. It is one of the most common human viruses. EBV spreads most commonly through bodily fluids, primarily saliva. EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, also called mono, and other illnesses.

What is Epstein Barr virus infection?

Epstein-Barr virus, or EBV, is one of the most common human viruses in the world. It spreads primarily through saliva. EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, also called mono, and other illnesses. Most people will get infected with EBV in their lifetime and will not have any symptoms.

What does mono mean in a blood test?

Infectious mononucleosis, commonly called mono, refers to an infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The mono test detects proteins in the blood called heterophile antibodies that are produced by the immune system in response to an EBV infection.

How long does Heterophile antibody stay positive?

It will generally not be positive during the 4–6 week incubation period before the onset of symptoms. The highest amount of heterophile antibodies occurs 2 to 5 weeks after the onset of symptoms. If positive, it will remain so for at least six weeks. An elevated heterophile antibody level may persist up to 1 year.

What does a negative Monospot mean?

The heterophile antibody test (eg, the Monospot test) results may be negative early in the course of EBV infectious mononucleosis. These causes of false-positive Monospot test results include toxoplasmosis, rubella, lymphoma, and certain malignancies, particularly leukemias and/or lymphomas.

What is Homophilic?

homophilic (comparative more homophilic, superlative most homophilic) (immunology) that reacts only with a specific antigen. (sociology) tendency for people to maintain relationships with people who are similar to themselves, as characterized by age, race, gender, religion, or profession.

Why is Heterophile antibody produced during EBV infection?

The IgM antibodies are called heterophile antibodies because they react with something other than EBV viral proteins.

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